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Glossary

EMDR (so-called eye movement therapy)
EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing) is a fairly new, nontraditional type of psychotherapy. It’s growing in popularity, particularly for treating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD often occurs after experiences such as military combat, physical assault, rape, or car accidents.At first glance, EMDR appears to approach psychological issues in an unusual way. It does not rely on talk therapy or medications. Instead, EMDR uses a patient’s own rapid, rhythmic eye movements. These eye movements dampen the power of emotionally charged memories of past traumatic events.

What Can You Expect From EMDR?

If you suffer from PTSD, what can you expect during an EMDR treatment session — which can last up to 90 minutes? Your therapist will move his or her fingers back and forth in front of your face and ask you to follow these hand motions with your eyes. At the same time, the EMDR therapist will have you recall a disturbing event. This will include the emotions and body sensations that go along with it.

Gradually, the therapist will guide you to shift your thoughts to more pleasant ones. Some therapists use alternatives to finger movements, such as hand or toe tapping or musical tones.

People who use the technique argue that EMDR can weaken the effect of negative emotions. Before and after each EMDR treatment, your therapist will ask you to rate your level of distress. The hope is that your disturbing memories will become less disabling.

Although most research into EMDR has examined its use in people with PTSD, EMDR is also used to treat many other psychological problems. They include:

• Panic attacks

• Eating disorders

• Addictions

• Anxiety, such as discomfort with public speaking or dental procedures

Existential Problems
Existential psychotherapy is not a specific technique or set of techniques. It is more philosophical in nature.
Existential psychotherapy is a philosophy about human nature.
Proponents of existential psychotherapy have not advocated specific training institutes because its presuppositions can underlie any form of therapy.
In existential terms, the conflicts individuals experience are regarding the givens of existence.
From the existential perspective “deep” conflict means the most fundamental concern at that moment.
CBT (cognitive behavioral therapy)
At certain conditions and life situations including panic disorder, anxiety, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, flight phobia, depression, trauma, low self-esteem, crises, eating disorders, burnout and unrealistic fears, a CBT treatment to be successful.

Based on a behavioral analysis defines the thoughts and external behavior is to be changed. With behavior we mean different body reactions, own interpretations and perceptions of events and specific actions which affects both the individual himself and his surroundings.

To test new desired behaviors (exposure treatment). The treatment also include using a schedule identifying negative thoughts and develop alternative ideas. Change in content of thought affect emotions. Between therapy sessions the client may work with homework.

Compulsion
Thoughts that you can not stop.
Body Psychotherapy
In a body-oriented psychotherapy the reactions of the body’s are as important as the spoken word. Body and soul (psyche) are inseparable. Emotions are not so rarely represented in physical symptoms. In order to allow feelings to be heard we practice deep breathing and different body techniques / exercises.
Solution Focused consultation
In a solution-focused consultation (1-5 times), the focus is on highlighting the resources that the client already has. How has the client previously approached, addressed and solved the problem. It is important to look at what actually works and has worked rather than what does not work so well.

Obsession
Obsessions thoughts
Couples therapy (family therapy)
In couple therapy attention is directed to the interaction and communication within the couple. Furthermore, focus is on the couple’s way of resolving their conflicts and problems. The aim is to find new functional solutions and let unsaid thoughts have space to be communicated. Homework is given between sessions. »More on couple therapy / family therapy
Psychodynamic psychotherapy
In psychodynamic psychotherapy the therapist is trying to understand the internal context together with You. How the symptoms You have may be related to life situation now or earlier in life and thereby find new perspectives and ways of dealing with difficulties. In psychotherapy, attention is turned toward the inner reality in which thoughts, fantasies, images, feelings and body sensations are. Our inner world affects how we see the world. In our choices, actions, relationships and experiences of external events, we experience and act in constant resonance with the one we are within ourselves. Here lies the difficulty because the inner world is more or less elusive in it’s nature. The inner motives may not be clear, why we sometimes or often do not understand why we fall in and repeat negative life patterns. It can be difficult to deal with the difficulties, even though we rationally tries to solve them. In such situations, you may need professional help.
Psychologist
A psychologist is a specialist in psychology. Five-year graduate program in psychology leading to the Diploma in Psychology; One year of supervised psychological experience/training beyond degree is required to become a licensed psychologist.
Psychological treatment for stress and burnout state
In the case of burnout we can speak of a fatigue spiral that eventually leads to depression. It can be a multi-year process with long-term stress with little or no potential for recovery that leads to a series of physical and psychological symptoms.

It often begins with pain in the body – neck, shoulders, back is the most common. But even an upset stomach and chest pain / heart. You can get tinnitus. You get insomnia, leading to fatigue and low in energy.

The next step is memory disturbances and concentration disorders that can lead to feelings of guilt and shame. Anxiety is common and you may get depressed.

This can develop into a depression, fatigue, and suicidal ideation which also can occur.

Consultation in burn out syndrome includes:

Knowledge of what happens in the body.

Understanding of what led to the present.

Relaxation Exercises

Coping strategies – find a new approach to respond to stress and load.

Set new standards – in practice, and practicing saying no inward oneself and outward to others.

Self assertive training.

Psychosomatic disorders
Physical condition caused, maintained or exacerbated by psychological factors. Modern psychosomatic research has broadened the perspective and consider sickness and health depends on many factors: physical, mental and social.

The concept of stress is often a key: external shocks, combined with vulnerability (such as lack of ability to handle problems) leads to pronounced physical stress reactions, such as muscle tension or high production of stress hormones.

This in turn can lead to physical symptoms, such as headache stress released triggered tension in the forehead muscles.

Psychotherapist
A psychotherapist is a specialist in psychotherapy.

Training for the psychotherapist is a supplementary education for 60 (old) university points which is half speed for 3 years and includes theory, tutoring and self-therapy.

Psychotherapy
Psychotherapy is treatment for mental health problems with psychological methods. Psychotherapy treatment grew up around the turn of the century from 1800 to 1900. Today we have a variety of methods such as psychoanalytic oriented therapy, cognitive therapy, CBT (cognitive behavioral therapy), Gestalt therapy, family therapy, dance therapy, image therapy, couple and body therapies.
OCD
Psychological problems which are dominated by obsessive thoughts (obsessions) and compulsive actions. Obsessive thoughts could be that you have to think of certain numbers in a special order otherwise something would happen. Compulsive actions are for example a strong need to check Your lock many times when You leave home.
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